A Tamarind Tree (Tamarindus indica) takes approximately 10 years of growth before yielding. The Tree blooms in August to December and the fruits are harvested in January to February. Tamarind fruit is a pod, which is 12 to 15cm (3 to 6 inches) in length and 1 to 1.5 cm in width, with a hard brown coloured shell. The pulp and the seeds are separated. The seeds are further de-husked, broken, cleaned and ground to obtain Tamarind Kernel Powder. TKP falls into the category of Natural gums and just like Guar, Xathan and other gums, TKP is bio-compatible, bio-degradable, non- toxic, natural polymer.

The Tamarind Kernel consists of :-

    Polysaccharide (35 - 55%)

    Proteins (18-20%)Tamarind bean - raw

    Lipids (6-10%)

    Fiber (7 - 18%)

    Fat (3 - 7.10%)

    Inorganic salts

    Free sugars

    Moisture (4 – 10%)

    Ash (1 - 3%)

Tamarind Kernel contains xyloglucan as storage polysaccharide.

The chemical structure of the tamarind seed xyloglucan backbone is ?-(1,4)-linked D-glucan and ispartially substituted at the O-6 position xylopyranose. Some of the xylose residues are ?-D-galactosylated at O-2. The side chains of xyloglucan play an important role in determining its structure and make them water-soluble and impart various rheological and biological functions.



Chemically, it is a high molecular weight branched polysaccharide consisting of cellulose-like backbone that carries xylose and galactoxylose substituents. The Tamarind seed gum is composed of glucose, xylose and galactose in a ratio 3:2:1. Tamarind seed gum has a high molecular weight ranging from 2.5x105 to 6.5x105.

 

TKP vs Pectin:-

TKP in the aqueous media forms mucilaginous dispersion and exhibit characteristics of gelling in presence of sugar concentrates, analogous to the Pectin. Unlike Pectin, TKP can gel at various pH, (including pH levels 7 and above). Also aqueous solutions of TKP are more thermal stable as compared to those of Pectin.

TKP shows a strong affinity towards most of the natural gums (especially cellulose) and would show synergism to them.

TKP vs Guar Gum:- TKP shows better thermal stability than guar gum. Also the pH tolerance is higher in TKP. Guar gum is far most superior than TKP in dispersion and suspension. Guar gum is readily soluble in cold water, whereas TKP takes more time for achieving full viscosity. To overcome this TKP derivatives are used.


Tamarind Gum Standards :-

CAS No. :- 39386-78-2

EINECS :- 254 -442-6

HS code :- 11063010

 

TKP Rheology :-

TKP disperses instantly even in cold water and forms a gel. The solution is very stable in wide range of temperature, pH and shear. The viscosity of TKP is directly proportional to its concentration, it increases sharply even with small increase in the concentration. Viscosity is not impacted by pH of the solution, or by iron, sodium salts. Viscosity ascents with even a small amount of sugar{such as starch syrup, D-glucose, sucrose and other oligosaccharides} in the mixture. TKP is insoluble in alcohol.

Even though no natural variants of TKP with low levels of substitution are known, by the comparison of galactomannans, the controlled eradication of galactose and xylose would lead to highly pure preparation of a plant ?-D-galactosidase. Galactose substitution in TKP solubilises the xyloglucan structure in the same was as galactose substitution in galactomannans solubilises the mannan backbone.

TKP shows good release kinetics of both water-soluble and water insoluble drugs and has high thermal stability. It is acts as a binder, gelling agent, thickening agent, ice-crystal stabilizer , starch modifier, emulsifier and as stabilizer in food, and pharmaceutical industries.

TKP uses and applications
TKP derivatives

Notes:
 

  •     Terms Tamarind gum and TKP are used interchangeably in above text, they are technically same products.
  •     Tamarind gum is marketed under the name “D.Col – Ecopol” series and more details could be found at :-  Tamarind gum Powder

 

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