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Tamarind Kernel Powder (TKP)

A Tamarind Tree (Tamarindus indica) takes approximately 10 years of growth before yielding. The Tree blooms in August to December and the fruits are harvested in January to February. Tamarind fruit is a pod, which is 12 to 15cm (3 to 6 inches) in length and 1 to 1.5 cm in width, with a hard brown coloured shell. The pulp and the seeds are separated. The seeds are further de-husked, broken, cleaned and ground to obtain Tamarind Kernel Powder. TKP falls into the category of Natural gums and just like Guar, Xathan and other gums, TKP is bio-compatible, bio-degradable, non- toxic, natural polymer.

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Guar Gum derivatives in fracturing fluids

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Fracturing fluids normally consist of many additives that serve two main purposes firstly to,Enhance fracture creation and proppant carrying capability and Secondly to Minimize formation damage. Viscosifiers, such as polymers and crosslinking agents, temperature stabilizers, pH control agents, and fluid loss control materials are among the additives that assist fracture creation. Formation damage is minimized by incorporating breakers, biocides, and surfactants. More appropriate gelling agents are linear polysaccharides, such as guar gum, cellulose, and their derivatives.

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Xanthan gum

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Xanthan is a natural polymer generated by the bacteria Xanthamonas campestris and produced commercially by a fermentation process. It is com-
posed of three monosaccharides mannose, glucose and glucuronic acid, arranged in a highly branched structure with an estimated molecular weight of 5 million.

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Fracturing Fluid Additives

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In most low permeability reservoirs, fracture fluid loss and efficiency is controlled by the formation permeability. In high permeability formations, a fluid-loss additive must be added to the fracture fluid to reduce leak-off and improve fluid efficiency.
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Checking Fluid Loss with Starch and Mica

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A fluid loss additive is described that consists of granular starch composition and fine particulate mica. An application comprises a fracturing
fluid containing this additive. A method of fracturing a subterranean formation penetrated by a borehole comprises injecting into the borehole and into contact with the formation, at a rate and pressure sufficient to fracture the formation, a fracturing fluid containing the additive in an amount sufficient to provide fluid loss control.

 
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